BES - Benessere Equo e Sostenibile


Basic Concepts

The link between the availability of services and citizens' well-being is based on an interpretive approach in which high quality public investments improve the general context in which people live and work and their social and economic interconnections. The choice of services to be taken as a reference depends on two distinct considerations relating to what qualifies a service as essential in the specific context of a policy, and what conditions must be met to define feasible targets. The identification of services and quality of performances depends on the different level of development, which increases the level and types of services seen as essential. For example, in more developed contexts, the minimum set of health services refers to a wider range of treatments. Aspects of equity and distribution, that is the connection between individual income and availability of services, are also relevant: the inadequate availability of services particularly affects those who do not have sufficient income conditions to resort to alternatives, while the non-availability of basic services is in itself a factor of poverty and exclusion. In this framework poverty is understood as the deprivation of opportunities and basic assets to which every person is entitled (nutrition, basic education, access to health services, water services, the possibility of participation in social and political life, ability to work, ...). This implies that inadequate services directly worsen the conditions of marginalization and exclusion, and therefore, decisive action on improving quantity and quality of services contributes directly to the reduction of social exclusion and poverty.


Dimensions considered to represent the domain

Based on the recent work of the Department of Public Administration (DFP, 2010) to assess the actual quality of public services, the Independent Commission for the Evaluation and Transparency of Government (Civit) identified the relevant dimensions for measuring quality of public services. "The analysis of the quality of a service indicates how and to what extent an organization delivers quality services, which comply promptly, consistently and fully to the requests of potential users, minimizing the trouble, the number of steps necessary, inconvenience caused by disruptions". ". It does not include the quality of the delivery process, rather involving aspects of efficiency, affecting only indirectly the citizen, or the subjective perception of users. The Commission identifies four essential dimensions: accessibility, timeliness, transparency and effectiveness. Here, the dimensions of transparency and timeliness (for which, however, the statistical information is extremely scarce) are considered as elements of accessibility or effectiveness, which are therefore consider as central dimensions of quality.

Even if infrastructures supply are in most cases only a pre-requisite for the achievement of a high standard in the delivery of services, in some cases aspects of infrastructures supply were taken into account as proxy of accessibility.

Furthermore, also on the basis of information provided by the CNEL-ISTAT Steering Committee, of criteria of data availability parsimony of indicators, the thematic group proposes to structure the analysis through three main areas of services: social services (health and social care), public utilities (energy, water and waste) and mobility. Therefore, it is possible to analyze each of the three main areas of services through the dimensions of accessibility and effectiveness.?


List of the best indicators

  1. Beds in residential health care facilities: Beds in residential health care facilities per 1,000 inhabitants.
  2. Waiting lists: Individuals who renounced to see a specialist or to undertake a therapeutic treatment (not dental) because of the length of waiting lists.
  3. Taking charge of users for early childhood services: Percentage of children aged zero to three years who benefited of early childhood services (crèches, micro-crèches or supplementary and innovative services).
  4. Taking charge of the elderly for home assistance: Percentage of elderly people who benefited from integrated home assistance service (Adi) compared to the total elderly population (65 and over).
  5. Irregularities in electric power distribution: Frequency of accidental long lasting electric power cuts (cuts without notice longer than 3 minutes) (average number per consumer).
  6. Percentage of household served by methane gas: Percentage of household declaring that the apart-ment is supplied with methane gas on the total number of households.
  7. Irregularities in water supply: Percentage of households who report irregularities in water supply.
  8. Landfill of waste: Percentage of municipal waste sent to landfill on total municipal waste collected.
  9. Separate collection of municipal waste: Percentage of municipal waste object of separate collection on total municipal waste.
  10. Prison density: Percentage of prisoners in penal institutions on the total capacity of penal institutions.
  11. Time devoted to mobility: Minutes devoted to mobility on an average weekday.
  12. Density of urban public transport networks: Km of urban public transport networks in provincial capitals per 100 sqKm of municipal surface.
  13. Composite index of service accessibility: Percentage of households who find very difficult to reach some basic services (pharmacy, emergency room, post office, police, carabinieri, municipal offices, crèches, nursery, primary and secondary school, market and supermarket).

Indicators under evaluation

  1. Index of accessibility to hospitals with emergency room: Percentage of population living more than X minutes away from an hospital with emergency room.
  2. Index of accessibility to transport networks: Percentage of population living more than X minutes1 away from a major railway station.



eFrame Project
Rapporto UrBes
BES delle Province