BES - Benessere Equo e Sostenibile


Basic Concepts

Research and innovation are an indirect determinant of well-being and the base of social and economic progress. In the identification of the suitable indicators have been privileged those that best capture the use of research, innovation and high level skills in relation to the well-being objectives outlined by the other domains.


Dimensions considered to represent the domain

Among the indicators that are considered most important and representative to the evaluation of research and innovation were selected those which are able to provide a measurement of the processes of creation, application and diffusion of knowledge. In order to obtain a consistent overview on these aspects, the indicators of research and innovation were grouped into two macro categories that refer to two distinct dimensions

  1. Creation of knowledge.
  2. Application and diffusion of knowledge.


List of the best indicators

  1. Intensity of research: Percentage of R&D expenditure on GDP.
  2. Propensity to patent: Number of patent applications filed to the European Patent Office (EPO) per million of inhabitants..
  3. Impact of knowledge workers on employment: Percentage of persons employed with university education (ISCED 5-6) in scientific-technological occupations (ISCO 2-3) on total persons employed.
  4. Innovation rate of the productive system: Percentage of firms that have introduced technological (product or process), organizational or marketing innovation in a three-year period on total number of firms with at least 10 number of persons employed.
  5. Innovation rate of product/service of the national productive system: Percentage of firms that have introduced innovations of product/service in a three-years period on total number of firms with at least 10 number of persons employed .
  6. Productive specialization in knowledge-intensive sectors: Percentage of persons employed in high-tech manufacturing sectors and those in knowledge-intensive services on total of persons employed.
  7. Intensity of Internet use: Percentage of people aged 16-74 years who have used internet at least once a week during the 12 months before the interview on total people aged 16-74 years.




eFrame Project
Rapporto UrBes
BES delle Province