BES - Benessere Equo e Sostenibile



 

Basic Concepts

According to Sen, development can be seen as an expanding process of real freedoms enjoyed by humans while wellbeing is the freedom to enjoy what we have reason to value (Sen, 2000). In this sense it is certain that the subjective perception and the experience of objective safety in daily life in Italy become of paramount importance in the construction of individual and community well-being. Personal security is part of the foundation of individual wellbeing. Being victim of a crime can result in economic loss, physical and/or psychological damage due to a suffered trauma. The most important effect of criminality on well-being is the sense of vulnerability that it determines on individuals. The fear to be victim of crime can strongly affect personal freedom, quality of life and development of territories. Also the theme of violence is closely related to personal security and quality of life.

Dimensions considered to represent the domain

The complexity of the phenomenon results in the need of taking into account both objective and subjective indicators, because from the point of view of quality of life it is important how we feel when we face criminality and not only how many crimes have occurred.

For objective indicators two dimensions were considered:

  1. Criminality. Criminality is one of the most common threats to personal security in developed and emerging countries. Crime has both a direct and indirect effect on people. Direct consequences affect physical and mental health, economic loss, and can be more or less durable. Also the crime indirect effect should be considered when we analyze its relation with well-being. Indirect victimization involves not only the victims but also their social entourage as well as the wider audience that is affected by the disproportionate attention given to criminality by the media.che fruisce dell’effetto amplificatore dei media rispetto alla criminalità.
  2. Suffered physical and sexual violence inside and outside home. The physical and sexual violence suffered inside and outside home has a direct and indirect effect on people. The effect of suffered violence can persist for long periods, even for the whole life, in terms of ability to manage daily life, medical costs, dependence on others, capacity to achieve happiness. Indirect effects are also cause of insecurity, increased worry and anxiety, from which an obstacle to daily activities may arise.


For subjective indicators two dimensions were considered:

  1. Perception of social and environmental degradation.;
  2. Fear of crime.

 

Finally it was decided to take into account the different moments of the life cycle, that enrich global information with details related to risks characterizing specific phases of individuals life.

 

List of the best indicators

  1. Homicide rate: Number of homicide on total population per 100,000.
  2. Burglary rate: Number of burglaries on total households per 1000.
  3. Pick-pocketing rate: Number of pick-pocketing on total population per 1,000
  4. Robbery rate: Number of robberies on total population per 1,000.
  5. Physical violence rate: Percentage of women aged 16-70 victim of physical violence on total women aged 16-10.
  6. Sexual violence rate: Percentage of people women 16-70 victim of sexual violence in the last 12 months before the interview on total women aged 16-70.
  7. Intimate partnership violence rate: Percentage of women aged 16-70 victim of physical or sexual violence by the partner on total women aged 16-70 who have or had a partner.
  8. Worries of being victim of a sexual offence: Percentage of people aged 14 years and over who are very or quite worried of suffering a sexual violence on total population aged 14 years and over.
  9. Fear of crime rate Percentage of people aged 14 years and over feeling unsafe when walking alone in the dark in the area where they live on total population aged 14 years and over.
  10. Concrete fear rate: Percentage of people aged 14 years and over who are afraid of becoming concretely a victim of crime on total population aged 14 years and over.
  11. Social decay (or incivilities) rate: Percentage of people aged 14 years and over who often see elements of social and environmental decay (vandalism acts, people selling drugs, drugs users, prostitute looking for clients) in the area where they live on total population aged 14 years and over.

 

 

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